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ap微观经济学(微观经济学AP的公式)

发布时间:2022-08-12 14:10   作者:alevel小助手   点击次数:176   联系电话:13610913112

ap微观经济学(微观经济学AP的公式)

ap微观经济学

微观经济学,这门科目在社科类的AP考试中是比较容易拿到5分的,那么这一次我们在考前把微观经济学的知识点内容进行一次概况上的全面解析,帮助同学们来梳理一下知识点逻辑

ap微观经济学(微观经济学AP的公式)

ap微观经济学(微观经济学AP的公式)

首先我们先来总结一下微观中的几个重要的知识点, 总的来说微观阶段一共可以分为5个阶段:经济学基础知识、demand和supply、边际值、成本和市场。

经济学基础知识

第一个部分是经济学基础知识,这个部分的内容与微观经济学主题内容的关联性不大,但微观和宏观的部分都会有题目对这部分知识点进行单独考察,具体的知识点都有什么呢?我们来简单的罗列一下:

1.Scarcity, choice and opportunity cost

2. Production possibility curve

3. Comparative advantage, absolute advantage, specialization and trade

4. Economic systems, Property rights and the role of incentives

这个部分当中可以说每个知识点都是一个单独的,考试的占比不是特别多,这里面比较难的章节在于ppc和comparative advantage, absolute advantage。PPC部分的开始重点在于,曲线应该是弯的,因为存在着机会成本递增规律law of increasing opportunity cost

简单举例,比如你同时学习钢琴和学校的文化课,如果钢琴你从1级考到2级,那么可能你文化课的分数就会下降5分,但是你要是从9级考到10级可能你的文化课就要下降50分了,都是钢琴增长一级,但是级别越高,舍弃的文化课分数越多。

而comparative advantage, absolute advantage, 难点是绝对优势和比较优势的区别:前者指用比另一个生产者更少的成本(时间、原料)生产某种物品的能力,后者指用比另一个生产者更少的机会成本生产某种物品的能力,这个地方千万注意比较优势,在计算比较优势的时候一定要注意用谁除以谁。

demand和supply

第二部分是关于demand和supply的部分,那我们来看一下相关的知识点:

1.Determinants of supply and demand

2. Market equilibrium

3. Elasticity

4. Consumer surplus, producer surplus and market efficiency

5. Tax incidence and deadweight loss

这个部分当中可以说的是整个微观经济学中考试的核心重点和起步的知识点,这个章节当中两个章节是Determinants of supply and demand和Market equilibrium,首先是supply和demand阶段,一共是两种运动模式,一种是线上的移动,一种是线的移动,改变demand的一共有5个条件,supply的有4个条件,其中一个预期的条件是重复的,经济学当中很少有需要背的东西,但是这9个一定要背住。

微观经济学AP的公式

1.Cost-benefit analysis: MB = MC

Optimal quantity is achieved when marginal benefit equals to marginal cost.

2.utility maximizing rule: MUx/Px = MUy/Py

Consumers allocate their limited income to purchase the combination of goods that maximizes their utility by equating/comparing the marginal utility of the last dollar spent on each good.

3.Price elasticity of demand = percentage change in Qd/percentage change in price

4.Price elasticity of supply = percentage change in Qs/percentage change in price

5.Income elasticity of demand = percentage change in Qd/percentage change in income

6.Cross-price elasticity of demand =percentage change in Qa/percentage change in Pb

7.Marginal Product(n) = Total Product (n)-Total Product(n-1)

8.Average Product (n) = TP (n)/n

9.MC(n) = TC (n) - TC (n-1) = VC (n) - VC (n-1)

10.TC = VC + FC

11.ATC = AVC + AFC

12.TC = ATC * Q

13.VC = AVC * Q

14.FC = AFC * Q

15.profit maximizing rule/loss minimising rule: MR = MC

16.Perfectly competitive firm: demand = MR = AR = P

17.Allocative efficiency: P = MC

18.Shut down rule: P = minimum AVC

19.Economic Profit = Total revenue - total cost = P * Q - AVC * Q

= total revenue - explicit cost - implicit cost

= accounting profit - opportunity cost

20.When total revenue equals to total cost, zero economic profit = normal profit

21.Factor market equilibrium: Marginal Resource Cost (MRC) = Marginal Revenue Product (MRP)

22.MRP = Marginal Product(MP) * Price

23.Profit maximizing rule for combining resources:

MPx/Px = MPy/Py

24.Externality: social optimal quantity: Marginal Social Benefit = Marginal Socail Cost

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